Combinatorial Pulsed Laser Deposition System

  • Sample combinatorial system

  • Radiative heater

  • Multi-target carousel

  • Solar cell libraries for the investigation of different metal back-contacts for TiO2-Cu2O hetero-junctions (S. Ruhle et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 2014, 16, 7066).

  • Example film libraries. P. K. Schenck et al, Thin Solid Films S17(2008), 691- 694

Combinatorial PLD System - thumbnail imageRadiative heater with power supply - thumbnail imageCCS - schematic thumbnail imageCCS - example libraries - thumbnail image

Special Features

  • Stand-alone turn-key combinatorial PLD System
  • Continuous Composition Spreads of binary/ternary/quaternary phase spreads
  • No post anneal and no masks
  • Film growth under ‘true’ deposition conditions (such as 800˚C, 500 mTorr)
  • Wafer size: 2” diameter is standard (with 4” and 6” custom designs)
  • Deposition of epitaxial films, multi-layer heterostructures and superlattices
  • Oxygen compatibility for oxide film depositions at high temperatures


The ability to produce many different material compositions in a single deposition run greatly accelerates the time to arrive at an optimum composition having the desired material properties. Continuous Composition Spread PLD (CCS-PLD) is based on the deposition rate profiles naturally occurring in PLD as a result of the Cosn (θ) (5  n ≤ 11) dependence. PLD-CCS benefits from the proven ease of multi-layer depositions using Neocera software and the intrinsic forward-directed nature of the PLD process to vary the composition of a binary/ternary/quaternary phase spread. PLD-CCS varies the material in an analog scheme, rather than in discrete elements, thus eliminating the need for masks. This allows for a very rapid successive deposition of each constituent at a rate of much less than a mono-layer per cycle, resulting in an approach that is fundamentally equivalent to a co-deposition method. The fact that this method does not depend on a post-deposition anneal to promote inter-diffusion or crystallization makes it applicable to studies where growth temperature is a critical parameter, or to situations where high-temperature anneals are incompatible with either the deposited material or the substrate. As no masks are used, this technique can operate in a wide dynamic range of pressures (up to about 500 mTorr) which are typically not possible in a mask-based approach. Neocera PLD systems can provide both combinatorial PLD (CCS-PLD) and standard PLD capabilities within the same system.

Substrate Size
2” diameter standard (4” and 6” as upgrades)
Deposition Chamber Size
18” diameter
Base Vacuum
  • 5 x 10-7 Torr standard
  • 5 x 10-9 Torr as upgrade
  • Substrate Temperature
    850˚C (upgrade to 1000°C) radiative heater; oxygen compatible
    Multi-Target Carousel
    6 x 1" diameter or 3 x 2" diameter
    Mass Flow Controllers
    One MFC for Oxygen standard with more MFCs as options
    Software Control
    Windows 7 with Labview 2013
    Load-locks, 3 RF/DC Sputter Sources/DC Ion Sources, LAXS, IES